The following web page is produced through the cooperation of over 50 professors of Islamic Studies and Middle Eastern Studies from the US and Canada. These scholars are members of the Study of Islam section at the American Academy of Religion, the largest international organization responsible for the academic study of religion.
All of us have been affected personally by the Tragedy of September 11th. Many of us have lost students, family members, friends, and colleagues in this tragedy. We would like to begin by offering our prayers and sympathy to everyone around the world who has lost loved ones in the attacks on World Trade Center, Pentagon, and Pennsylvania.
Our aims in this web page are to bring to light a number of issues, many of which have not received adequate coverage in the national media:
-Statements by leading academic organizations regarding the tragedy of
September 11th and the aftermath
This web site is being continuously
updated. Please check it frequently.
Since its conception on 9/12, it has been used as a resource in some 70 countries. If you find the information here useful, we humbly ask you to share it with your own community.
For a summary of many of the points in this page, see Michael Sells' "The Interlinked Factors of a Tragedy."
To see a summary of the Muslim responses post-9/11 on-line, see Gary Bunt's Useful article: "Studying Islam after 9-11: Reflections and Resources."
|(the picture above
an Iranian mother and daughter,
lighting a candle in the memory of those
who have lost loved ones in
the tragedy of September 11th.
For more details on this
mass candle light vigil, see below)
Statements from Leading International Academic Organizations for the Academic Study of Islam, Religion, and Middle East
Scholars of Islam speak out against terrorism; clarify position of Islam
Monday, September 17, 2001
Dozens of scholars of Islam issued a statement today, condemning the violent attacks of September 11th.
grief-stricken at these horrifying events, they
wrote; the murder of innocents can never be
justified and must not be tolerated.
In recent days, verbal and physical attacks against Muslims (and people who were thought to be Muslims) have been reported from California to Vermont. Muslims have been warned to stay home or to avoid wearing traditional dress. Particularly distressing is the fact that many American Muslims have fled to the United States, seeking a haven from intolerant regimes in Kosovo, Afghanistan or Iraq. For them now to face intolerance and violence here is an abuse of our Nations most deeply cherished beliefs they said.
The co-signers of the statement
are members of many scholarly societies in the United
States and Canada. They include:
Afsaruddin, of Notre Dame University
The full text of the statement
*Statement from the steering committee and members, Section for the Study of Islam
*Official Statement from the Board of the American Academy of Religion
*Statement from Board of Directors of the Middle East Studies Association
Words of Wisdom, Words of Compassion
I have set before you
I have begged you to
List of Statements
from various Muslim leaders from around the world, who have condemned the terrorist attacks of
This list has been compiled by Professor Charles Kurzman, of the University of North Carolina.
I am deeply grateful to him for generously allowing us to share this compilation.
Statements from Leading American Muslim Organizations:
*Statement from Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR) on the Tragedy of September 11th.
Press release from CAIR on September 11th
*Statement from Islamic Circle of North America (ICNA) on September 11th.
*Statement from Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) on September 11th
Images of Grief from American Muslims:
In the past few weeks, many of us have seen (often for
the first time) American Muslim leaders on TV, sharing
their grief with other American citizens,
This is a positive change, to see Muslim leaders. It
is naturally an encouraging development to have Muslims
being given a voice,
To provide a slightly different image, I would like to share the following two images, of younger female American Muslims.
Statements from leading Muslim leaders, condemning the terrorist attacks of September 11th
of the Islamic Conference, Doha, Qatar. October 10th,
2001: (representing 56 Muslim nations)
"These terrorist acts contradict the teaching of all religions and human and moral values."
|*"Terrorists are mass murderers, not martyrs", states Shaykh Hamza Yusuf.|
|*"Bin Laden's Violence is a heresy against Islam", states Abdul Hakim Murad|
|*Muslim scholar Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi denounced the attacks against civilians in the U.S.|
|*Sheikh Mohammed Sayyed al-Tantawi of Al-Azhar, the highest institution in Sunni Islam, warned that those who attack innocent people will be punished by Allah, in his weekly sermon to thousands of worshippers in Cairo. "Attacking innocent people is not courageous, it is stupid and will be punished on the Day of Judgment," the moderate Sheikh Tantawi said at Al-Azhar mosque. "It's not courageous to attack innocent children, women and civilians. It is courageous to protect freedom, it is courageous to defend oneself and not to attack," he said.|
|* "Hijacking Planes, terrorizing
innocent people and shedding blood constitute a form of
injustice that can not be tolerated by Islam, which views
them as gross crimes and sinful acts." Shaykh
Abdul Aziz al-Ashaikh (Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia and
Chairman of the Senior Ulama, on September 15th, 2001)
terrorists acts, from the perspective of Islamic law,
constitute the crime of hirabah (waging
war against society)." Sept. 27, 2001
fatwa, signed by:
*"Neither the law of Islam nor its ethical system justify such a crime." Zaki Badawi, Principal of the Muslim College in London. Cited in Arab News, Sept. 28, 2001.
*"It is wrong to kill innocent people. It is also wrong to Praise those who kill innocent people." Mufti Nizamuddin Shamzai, Pakistan. Cited in NY Times, Sept. 28, 2001.
*"What these people stand for is completely against all the principles that Arab Muslims believe in." King Abdullah II, of Jordan; cited in Middle East Times, Sept. 28, 2001.
The above statements by high ranking international Muslim scholars appeared in an advertisement placed by the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty, in the NY Times, October 17th, 2001 (p. A 17)
MUSLIM SCHOLARS REJECT "MISGUIDED" CALLS FOR
JIHAD : The Canadian office of the Council on
American-Islamic Relations (CAIR CAN) and the Canadian
Muslim Civil Liberties Association (CMCLA) today
denounced a series of recent statements made by Osama bin
Laden and his al-Qaeda network that state that Muslims
should wage a "jihad" against Americans.
"Islam respects the sacredness of life, and rejects any express statement or tacit insinuation that Muslims should harm innocent people. Despite our disagreement with certain American policies, we must never abuse the concept of Jihad to target innocent civilians.
Jihad, which literally means 'struggle,' has an internal, societal and combative dimension. The internal dimension of Jihad encompasses the struggle against the evil inclinations of the self, and the spiritual project to adorn the self with virtues such as justice, mercy, generosity and gentleness. The societal dimension includes struggling against social injustice and creating a communal identity based on charity, respect and equality. Finally, the combative aspect of jihad is only to be used as self-defense against aggression or to fight oppression, and, even then, to be observed with strict limits of conduct that preserves the life of innocents and the sanctity of the environment.
Moreover, this latter type of Jihad can only be declared by a legitimate, recognized religious authority. Using the concept of Jihad to justify harming the innocent is contrary to the letter and spirit of Islam.We condemn any violence that springs from this misguided interpretation."
|*Ingrid Mattson, a professor of Islamic studies and
Muslim-Christian relations at Hartford Seminary in
Hartford, said there was no basis in Islamic law or
sacred text for Mr. bin Laden's remarks. "The basic
theological distortion is that any means are permitted to
achieve the end of protesting against perceived
oppression," said Dr. Mattson, a practicing Muslim.
"Islamic law is very clear: terrorism is not permitted," she added. "Even in a legitimate war even if Osama bin Laden were a legitimate head of state, which he's not you're not permitted to indiscriminately kill civilians, just to create terror in the general population." ("Experts Say Bin Laden is Distorting Islamic Law", NY Times, Oct. 8, 2001)
Statements by President Bush
on distinguishing between the terrorists responsible for the atrocities of 9/11 and the religion of Islam
|Statement from President Bush
(September 13th, 2001)
I urge - I
know I don't need to tell you all this -but our nation
must be mindful
we must be mindful that as we seek to win the war
We will hold those who are responsible for the terrorist acts accountable and those who harbor them."
President Bush meets with Muslim leaders at a mosque in Washington, DC (9/17/01).
The following is a transcript
of President Bush's comments at a Washington mosque
The English translation is not as eloquent as the original Arabic, but let me quote from the Qur'an itself: "In the long run, evil in the extreme will be the end of those who do evil, for that they rejected the signs of Allah and held them up to ridicule."
The face of terrorist is not the true faith of Islam. That's not what Islam is all about. Islam is peace. These terrorists don't represent peace, they represent evil and war. When we think of Islam, we think of a faith that brings comfort to a billion people around the world. Billions of people find comfort and solace and peace. And that's made brothers and sisters out of every race, out of every race.
America counts millions of Muslims amongst our citizens, and Muslims make an incredibly valuable contribution to our country. The Muslims are doctors, lawyers, law professors, members of the military, entrepreneurs, shopkeepers, moms and dads, and they need to be treated with respect.
In our anger and emotion, our fellow Americans must treat each other with respect. Women who cover their heads in this country must feel comfortable going outside their homes. Moms who wear covering must not be intimidated in America. That's not the America I know; that's not the America I value.
I've been told that some fear to leave; some don't want to go shopping for their families; some don't want to go about their ordinary daily routines because, by wearing cover, they're afraid they'll be intimidated. That should not and that will not stand in America. Those who feel like they can intimidate our fellow citizens to take out their anger don't represent the best of America. They represent the worst of humankind. And they should be ashamed of that kind of behavior.
And it's a great country; it's a great country because (we) share the same values of respect and dignity and human worth. And it is my honor to be meeting with leaders who feel just the same way I do. They are outraged; they're sad. They love America just as much as I do. And I want to thank you all for giving me a chance to come by, and may God bless us all. Thank you.
|Words of Wisdom, Words of
takes a life,
saves a single life,
Expressions of grief and sympathy in the Arab and Muslim world:
|For many of us, one of the most
disturbing images of these past painful weeks has been
that of the celebration of a few Palestinian youths after
This image has been played over and over again on CNN, thus reinforcing the myth that somehow the whole of the Arab and Muslim world rejoices at our pain.
Closer examination has revealed that that celebration was in fact a very limited phenomenon, limited to a few Palestinian villages. Almost every single head of state in the Muslim world has expressed grief and outrage over this tragedy, fully expressing sympathy with the Americans who have lost loved ones in this tragedy.
We believe that it is important that these images, these words, also receive national attention.
|The picture to the right is a poignant
image of two Palestinian women mourning the loss of life
in the tragedies of September 11th.
- The terrorist act was strongly condemned by every single Palestinian organization including Fatah, the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Hamas, Workers Unions and Committees, Human Right organizations (AlHaq, Law, Palestine Center for Human Rights), student associations, municipalities, mosques and churches, etc.
- The US Consul General in Jerusalem reported that he has received a huge stack of faxes from Palestinians and Palestinian organizations expressing condolences, grief and solidarity. He himself was pained to see that the media chose to focus on the sensational images of a few Palestinians rejoicing.
- The Palestine Legislative Council condemned the terrorist attack on the United States and sent an urgent letter of condolences to Mr. J Dennis Hasterd, Speaker of the House of Representatives.
- Palestinians in East Jerusalem held a candle-light vigils on 12 and 14 September to express their grief and solidarity with the American families struck by this tragedy. Mr. Abdel Qader Al-Husseini, son of the late Palestinian leader Faisal Al-Husseini led one of the vigils.
- Jerusalem University students, along with the President of the University and the Deans of the various Faculties, began a blood donation drive in East Jerusalem. Students and professors went to hospitals in order to donate blood for the American victims who need it.
- The 1 million Palestinian
students in the Palestinian Territory, including East
Jerusalem, stood five minutes in
silence to express their
solidarity with the hundreds of American children who have been struck by this
strategy, which resembles in
its shocking effects their daily sufferings. (see image to the
Words of Wisdom, Words of Compassion
weakness of violence is that it is a descending spiral,
In fact, violence merely increases hate....
Darkness cannot drive out hate; only love can do that.
The Images below are
from a peaceful candlelight vigil on the streets of
Tehran, Iran. (September 18th, 2001)
The following image is from a
peaceful rally in the Muslim country of Bangladesh,
(The following images are from other regions of the world, and worthy of being included. For more images, see America's Tragedy as Seen by the World)
Image of Tibetan female
|The following two images are from India, in sympathy with those who have lost ones in 9/11|
|Words of Wisdom, Words of
An eye for
Hate crimes against American Muslims and
(and those who merely look like Arabs and Muslims)
since Tuesday, September 11th:
Commission on Civil Rights (UCCR) has established a
hotline for reports of hate crimes against Arab American,
Muslim and South Asian American victims of violent
incidents following the hijacking attacks on September
11. The hotline number is 800-552-6843. ADC has complied
over a list of over two hundred incidents of hate crimes
and harassment against Arab Americans, Muslims and others
following the attacks. ADC urges all victims of threats,
harassment or hate crimes to contact the police and ADC
immediately and call the UCCR hotline.
-The Council on American Islamic Relations puts the number of reported attacks on at 785. In the past few days the number has risen from 300 to 542 to 625, to 785 reported cases, as of October 2nd. The 48 hours after the WTC tragedy already saw more hate crimes against Muslims and Arabs than the entire previous year. The attackers have often lashed out against anyone with a brown skin tone or accent. Some of the hate has been directed against our Hindu and Sikh friends, who are neither Arab nor Muslim.
Here are some of the most serious attacks:
Information on Afghanistan, Taliban, and Bin laden
In these days where there is so much speculation about
the Taliban and Usama Bin Ladin,
However, as scholars of Islamic studies we wish to
make it clear that the conveying the following
information does not indicate
endorsing of the Taliban.
-Information page on the Taliban and Afghanistan
-Information on Bin Laden, and his interpretations of Jihad, Qur'an, etc.
Comments on the Northern Alliance:
There has been a tendency in some news reports to
valorize the Northern Alliance,
*Human Rights Watch (HRW), a US-based rights
organisation with UN affiliation, warned in a report on 6
"The US and its allies should not cooperate with
commanders whose record of brutality raises questions
about their legitimacy inside Afghanistan",
*The report points to the alleged systematic abuse of
largely ethnic Pashtuns during the NA's four-month
occupation of Sangcharak in the north between 1999 and
Women's Right Organizations, working with Afghani women in and outside of Afghanistan:
petitions and releases from human rights organizations
calling for a less violent resolution of the aftermath of September 11th
9-11 Peace Org.
What follows is a petition that will be forwarded to President Bush, and other world leaders, urging them to avoid war as a response to the terrorist attacks against the World Trade Center and the Pentagon this week. Please read it, sign below, and forward the link to as many people as possible, as quickly as possible. We must circulate this quickly if it is to have any effect at all, as the Congress of The United States has already passed a resolution supporting any military action President Bush deems appropriate.
undersigned, citizens and residents of the United States
of America and of countries around the world, appeal to
the President of The United States, George W. Bush; to
the NATO Secretary General, Lord Robertson; to the
President of the European Commission, Romano Prodi; and
to all leaders internationally to use moderation and
restraint in responding to the recent terrorist attacks
against the United States. We implore the powers that be
to use, wherever possible, international judicial
institutions and international human rights law to bring
to justice those responsible for the attacks, rather than
the instruments of war, violence or destruction.
|If you are interest in signing the petition (already signed by more than 600,000 individuals), go to 9-11 Peace Org. web petition site.|
Moveon.org ("Justice, not Terror")
To combat terrorism, we must act
in accordance with a high standard
that does not disregard the lives of people in other
We perpetuate the cycle of
retribution and recruit more
terrorists by creating martyrs.
Thank you. We've mounted a petition campaign, called "Justice, not Terror", that delivers exactly this message. Please add your voice at: Moveon.org petition
"We must stand up for human rights"
The attacks in the USA on 11 September
2001 amounted to an international tragedy. The victims
included US citizens as well as Asians, Latin Americans
and Europeans, Muslims as well as Christians and Jews.
The identity of the perpetrators has yet to be fully
determined but there is evidence to suggest that they
come from several different countries. Grief and outrage
at the atrocity have affected people all over the world.
This global tragedy demands a global response - based on
global values of human rights and justice.
from Nobel Prize Peace Winners on how we
should procede in the aftermath of 9/11
The following statements appear courtesy of Nobel Prize winners' page, titled "The Peacemakers Speak" in The Community.
|His Excellency Mr. George W. Bush
The White House
Washington, DC 20500
I am deeply shocked by the terrorist attacks that took place involving four apparently hijacked aircrafts and the immense devastation these caused. It is a terrible tragedy that so many innocent lives have been lost and it seems unbelievable that anyone would choose to target the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. We are deeply saddened. On behalf of the Tibetan people I would like to convey our deepest condolence and solidarity with the American people during this painful time. Our prayers go out to the many who have lost their lives, those who have been injured and the many more who have been traumatized by this senseless act of violence. I am attending a special prayer for the United States and its people at our main temple today.
I am confident that the United States as a great and powerful nation will be able to overcome this present tragedy. The American people have shown their resilience, courage and determination when faced with such difficult and sad situations.
It may seem presumptuous on my part, but I personally believe we need to think seriously whether a violent reaction is the right thing to do and in the greater interest of the nation and people in the long run. I believe violence will only increase the cycle of violence. But how do we deal with hatred and anger which are often the root causes of such senseless violence? This is a very difficult question, especially when it concerns a nation and we have certain fixed conceptions of how to deal with such attacks. I am sure you will make the right decision.
With my prayers and good wishes,
The Dalai Lama
(Nobel Peace Laureate, 1989)
|Oscar Aria, Nobel Peace Laureate, 1987|
US Bombing of Afghanistan
One of the challenging points about trying to convey a sense of the range of the responses of the international community is that much of the national news has focused on two extremes: the majority of Americans (80+%, according to CNN polls) support these actions. In this campaign, we are supported by the British and other allies. The other extreme has been the angry backlash in Pakistan, which has also been receiving a great deal of national attention.
Our aim here is to go beyond both of
those extremes, and document some of the wide
range of ambiguities and ambivalences that exist
|BBC report: The UN Human Rights commissioner, Mary Robinson, has called for a pause in the US-led air strikes against Afghanistan to allow vital aid to be taken to hundreds of thousands of people in the country. She said the pause was needed to enable humanitarian agencies to gain access before winter sets in. (October 12, 2001)|
Report: The UN Human Rights Commisioner, Mary
Robinson, has also warned that Afghanistan's crisis could
turn into a humanitarian disaster on the
same scale as Rwanda's in the mid-1990s. Speaking in a
BBC interview, Mrs Robinson said up to seven million
people were at risk in Afghanistan, and there was little
time to act before winter set in.
"Are we going to preside over deaths from starvation of hundreds of thousands - maybe millions - of people this winter because we didn't use the window of opportunity before winter closes? Robinson added: "There's been three years of famine in Afghanistan, there's been military conflict internally, now there's this military assault and I understand the reasons, but we have to have as a priority the civilian population and their need to be secured for the coming winter," Mrs Robinson told BBC television.
report: Doctors Without Borders (MSF) Criticizes the
The international medical aid agency Medecins Sans Frontiers (MSF) said the humanitarian action was "a piece of military propaganda aimed at making the U.S.-led attack more acceptable to international opinion." "What sense is there in shooting with one hand, and giving medicine with the other?" the group asked.
*Also, read here for a fuller interview with Austen Davis, the General Director of Medeins Sans Frantiers: "Q& A: Afghanistan's Humanitarian Crisis". This was reported on the Christian Science Monitor.
report: Oxfam critizes the air drop of food:
spokesman for Oxfam -- a UK-based development, relief, and campaigning organisation -- told Reuters: "We would say that...what's being done is confused and almost completely unprepared for a crisis of this scale. "Dropping things from the air is more PR than a well prepared aid effort. Air drops are very random. "You don't know whether you are dropping food to a city, you don't know if you're dropping food to the Taliban, you don't know if you're dropping food to the people who need it."
Iranian President Mohammad Khatami, meanwhile, has called for an "immediate end" to the US military strikes against Afghanistan, as thousands of refugees continue to cross the border into Iran. Mr Khatami said the strikes against the Taleban regime and Saudi-born militant Osama Bin Laden had caused a "human catastrophe," Iranian state radio said.
|* BBC: North Korea has
condemned the US-led military action in Afghanistan
saying it risked plunging the world into the
"holocaust of war". A foreign ministry
spokesman said the government line was against terrorism,
but he could not condone the air strikes.
use of armed forces or a war to kill innocent people and
aggravate regional situation and disturb regional
stability contrary to the purpose cannot be justified
under any circumstances," said a foreign ministry
|* BBC: Malaysia has also refused to give any kind of support to the strikes. Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad said he did not support the attacks because innocent people would be killed and terrorism would not be wiped out.|
|Christian Science Monitor: (Saudi Arabia) Some Saudi Arabian religious scholars issue opinions against helping the US in the retaliation against Afghanistan.|
UN refugee agency (UNHCR) warned it was not ready to deal
with any mass influx of refugees from Afghanistan.
The UNHCR recently predicted that 1.5 million people might be heading for Afghanistan's borders, but said volatile security around proposed camps in Pakistan and Pakistani bureaucracy meant it had no way of monitoring the actual numbers. The agency's high commissioner, Ruud Lubbers, said he feared the new camps would not be ready in time for the fast-approaching winter.
Aid agencies in Pakistan are working amid heightened tension Pakistan has difficulty coping with the two million Afghan refugees already on its territory.
Some of the civilian casualties of the US bombing of Afghanistan
(Oct. 17th, 2001): The Pentagon has admitted
mistakenly bombing a warehouse used by the Red
Cross during a raid on the Afghan capital Kabul.
A statement said warplanes dropped 1,000 pound (454 kg)
bombs that inadvertently hit one or more Red Cross
buildings on Tuesday. The Pentagon said it "did not
know" the Red Cross was using warehouses that were
among facilities used by the Taleban to store ammunition.
The use of the AC-130 could herald the use of ground
troops Red Cross reports "indicate that wheat and
other humanitarian supplies stored in the warehouses were
destroyed, and an Afghan security guard was injured"
in the incident, the Pentagon said.
International Red Cross: "The compound was clearly
marked with the protective emblem of the Red Cross"
(October 10th, 2001): US Missile hits a UN office in
Afghanistan, killing 4 UN workers
involved in the removal of landmines from Afghanistan.
The Pentagon acknowledged it was "entirely possible" that the missing missile hit the U.N. building, even though it was not targeted by the U.S. military. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said, "We regret the loss of life."
U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan on Tuesday called the news of the deaths a "hard blow." "The council members raised ... their deepest condolences and sympathy to the families of those aid workers who died and of course stressed the fact that we need to do all we can to protect innocent civilians in the struggle, and of course for the U.N. it is a hard blow," Annan said. "It's something that is of great concern to me and the staff in this organization."
KABUL - A U.S. Navy F/A-18 attack aircraft missed a Taliban military target at Kabul airport and its 2,000-pound "smart" bomb blasted civilian houses a mile from the Afghan capital, the Pentagon said. A U.S. defense official said the satellite-guided bomb had missed because of human error, in that incorrect coordinates had been entered into a targeting system. The Pentagon cited reports of as many as four dead and eight injured. A Reuters reporter said at least one man was killed and four injured.
JALALABAD - The Taliban say U.S. bombs flattened Khorum village, near the eastern city of Jalalabad. Villagers said at least 160 people were killed in the pre-dawn bombing. International journalists invited to visit the village saw evidence of widespread devastation and more than a dozen fresh graves but it was impossible to confirm the death toll or what had caused the damage. Rumsfeld did not deny the area had been targeted, but described the alleged death toll as "ridiculous" and said the remote mountainous area was riddled with tunnels containing munitions.
october 17th, 2001:
KANDAHAR - Taliban Information Ministry official Abdul Hanan Himat said a U.S. bomb hit a truck packed with Afghans trying to flee air raids on the town of Chunai near the southern Taliban stronghold of Kandahar. He said all those in the truck had been killed but gave no casualty figure. No independent verification was possible.
|Reuters: (October 20th, 2001); Taliban spokesman Abdul Hai Mutmaen said up to 900 people had been killed or were missing in the strikes, which began on October 7. Witnesses said many victims were civilians.|
|Articles and editorials critiquing the US retaliation against Afghanistan|
*Arundhati Roy, "War Is Peace: The world doesn't have to choose between the Taliban and the US government. All the beauty of the world-literature, music, art lies between these two fundamentalist poles."
|*Arundhati Roy, "The Algebra Of Infinite Justice"|
|*Francis A. Boyle, "No War Against Afghanistan" (oct. 18th, 2001)|
|*Pax Christi, Michael McCarthy: "Not a Just War" (October 7th, 2001)|
The urgent condition of Afghani Reguees:
The following is a pictorial essay provided by Doctors Without Borders, the Nobel Peace prize winning humanitarian organization which has been working with Afghani refugees in Jalozai. Jalozai is close to Peshawar, in North Pakistan, and is currently home to 50,000 homeless Afghanis. It is hoped that these pictures help convey something of the humanity of the 6 million Afghani refugees who currently live in Pakistan and Iran.
|The picture below depicts the rationing of water to refugee children.||A young boy, unable to walk, who gets around on his hands.|
|A little girl with a common eye infection.||A 90 year old woman, keeping her straw mat clearn.|
|The cramped tents increase the possibility of disease||Women and girls waiting to be treated by Doctors Without Borders.|
|A child suffering from malnutrition||An MSF (Doctors Without Borders) explaining potential health hazards|
|Strong resiliance of one camp family, spinning yarn.||Community building in the refugee camp|
Useful links: Editorial peices and articles
The complexities of Jihad:
*One of the most important perspectives on the
discussion of Jihad is that provided by Muslim Mystics,
There is perhaps no more eloquent and thoughtful--and compassionate--exposition of this idea than that of the late and great Sri Lankan Muslim mystic, M. R. Bawa Muhaiyaddeen. Bawa discussed his ideas on Jihad and the world we share in the wonderfully insightful text called Islam and World Peace. Selections from this text are available on-line. There is a large spiritual community in Philadelphia organized around the Sufi teachings of Bawa Muhaiyaddeen. Many members of this organization are active in global peace issues and have publicly spoken on behalf of causes such as nuclear reduction.
Further Readings on Islam
Middle East the center of global Terrorism?
One of the aims of the campaign against terrorism is said to be the elimination of terrorism from every region of the world.
Many people, including most of us, would welcome such a goal. All of us would like to live in a peaceful world.
One unanswered question, based on the State Department's own data available on-line, is whether the fight against terrorism will extend to non-Muslim countries.
The chart below clearly documents that the majority of acts classified as terrorist by the State Department took place in Latin America, followed by Western Europe. The Middle East ranked a distant third or fourth.
Naturally the tragedy of September 11th has brought to the forefront the hateful actions of one terrorist organization, al-Qaeda. All of us would like to see those behind that atrocious tragedy brought to justice.
Still, the State Department data (1995 to 2000) seems to warn against an identification of terrorism with the Middle East region.
Humane voices in a turbulent world:
This page is created and maintained by Omid Safi of Colgate University. The opinions reflected here do not represent Colgate University. If you have any suggestions for other links and articles that can help promote a humanitarian, peaceful resolution to these difficult times, please forward them to me.
Click here to go back to the main page of the Study of Islam section.